About abortion, it's often asked "when does life begin?" Are fetuses even alive?
People who oppose abortion are quick to argue that "life begins at conception": they even say "science says" that life begins at conception.
Some pro-choice people ask if fetuses are even alive. Their question can seem silly (since abortions involve killing fetuses, and you can't kill things that aren't alive, so fetuses must be alive!), but it's really not.
It all depends on what "being alive" means. What is life anyway? What do you mean "life"?
One clear answer is that "life" is biological life. So to be alive is to be biologically alive or engaging in the processes of living things: taking things in, putting stuff out, growing, repairing, and so on.
Fetuses clearly are biologically alive. Again, since abortion involves killing fetuses, they must be biologically alive. You don't need a scientist to tell you that.
There's another legitimate meaning of "life" though. To see this meaning, consider this example:
Suppose a 20-something was in a car crash 20 years ago. She had been in a deep coma ever since, because her brain was extremly damaged, but her body - which breathed on its own - finally died yesterday.When did her life end? When did she cease to be alive?
We might want to say that her biological life ended yesterday, but that her what we could all her biographical life ended 20 years ago: the "story" of her life ended at the car crash: the person she was ended then.
So what kind of "life" are we thinking about when asking "when does life begin?" Biological life, or biographical life?
People who oppose abortion tend to assume biological life, partly because they usually aren't aware of the concept of biographical life. They assume that if fetuses are biologically alive, then abortion is often wrong.
However, consider these assumptions, which are essential to various arguments from fetuses are biologically alive to the conclusion that abortion is typically wrong:
A. All living things are typically wrong to kill.
B. All living things that are biologically human are typically wrong to kill.
C. All living things that are biologically human organisms are typically wrong to kill.
(A) is false: plants and mold are biologically alive, but not wrong to kill.
(B) is false: a random blob of living biologically human cheek cells wouldn't be wrong to kill.
(C) is what's at issue.
- 'When does “life” begin? When it comes to abortion, it depends on what you mean by "life"' at Salon.
- Would around 70% of people * deny * that "human life begins at conception"?
- "Are fetuses human beings?"
- "Fetuses are human beings; all human beings are equal in dignity & worth; so abortion is wrong." Good or bad argument?
- "When does life begin?' and 'Are fetuses human?': Two bad questions to ask about abortion."
- "Is your opinion on abortion wrong? Critical thinking and abortion."
- On Saying What You Mean: the "Principle of Charity" and the "Principle of Clarity"
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